Case 1
The first patient is a 70 year old woman with a 2 month history of
shortness of breath and dyspnea on exertion. She was known
to have mitral valve (MV) prolapse and mitral regurgitation (MR).
A pre operative transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) showed
mitral valve prolapse with moderately severe (3+) MR. Cardiac
catheterization showed only minimal luminal irregularities of the
coronary arteries.
She had no history of esophageal disease, dysphagia, or
She came to surgery for MV repair. After induction of
anesthesia and endotracheal intubation a transesophageal
echocardiography (TEE) probe was inserted into the esophagus
and a comprehensive examination performed.